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without incurring the prohibitive costs of       offer the lowest possible air resistance?
               developing physical prototypes.                  Do the electronics operate reliably?

               Let us set the context by defining the           For Ford Motors, Siemens' Digital
               concept of digital twin. For starters,           Enterprise Suite operates across its value
               Digital twin means an integrated multi-          chain. It enabled Ford to increase their
               physics, multi-system simulation of a            number of models, reduce factory energy
               complex product, which functions to              cost by up to 30% and development time
               mirror the life of its corresponding twin.       by up to 40%.
               Digital twin consists of three parts- (i) the
               virtually defined product including its          The same advantages are seen even in the
               subsystems (ii) the physical product and         heavy machinery industry. Let's say, for
               (iii) the links between physical and virtual     example, a manufacturer needs to develop
               product. It serves as a bridge between the       a steam turbine. Traditionally, engineers
               physical world and the digital world.            would take several months to design the
                                                                product, physically build it and then test it
               The digital twin is characterised by the         for performance. On the other hand, by
               two-way interactions between the digital         using a digital twin, they can test and
               and physical worlds, which may result in         evaluate all parameters with high
               many benefits. In the physical world, the        precision -- ranging from material to
               real product can be made smarter to              performance, while obtaining valuable
               actively adjust its real-time behaviour          data that would help make the final set of
               according to the recommendations made            changes before the actual turbine is
               by the virtual product or the twin.              developed.
               Whereas in the virtual world, the digital
               version of the product can be made more          NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission
               realistic to accurately reflect the real-        - which includes the latest rover,
               world state of the physical product.             popularly known as Curiosity - is the most
                                                                technologically complex project in the
               In process-driven functions, digital twins       space agency's history. It is an example of
               constantly receive data feeds from               the seamless communication that is
               interconnected machines, helping in              developing among machines - the meeting
               predictive maintenance and running the           of the real and virtual worlds.
               business as usual without downtime.
               Gartner estimates that by 2021 - just a          In process industries, digitalisation
               couple of years from now -- half of all          enables companies to build a
               major industrial companies will be using         comprehensive data model, ensuring
               digital twins. Key Industry verticals will       shorter time to market, greater flexibility,
               be a key beneficiary of this.                    and increased efficiency, while allowing
                                                                companies to respond successfully to the
               With a new model being launched on an            volatility and diversity of global markets,
               average every six months or so, a digital        thereby giving them a lasting competitive
               twin of the model serves as a test bed,          edge.
               helping manufacturers to design,
               customise and test every part while              The backdrop to the digital twin practice
               running it in a virtual environment, saving      is digitalisation, which offers immense
               crucial time and millions on developing          possibilities in redefining the
               physical prototypes. Engineers can               'productivity' criteria as businesses get
               simulate and validate product properties,        access to high-quality data through digital
               for example - Is the product stable, and is      real-time supply chain, digital product
               it intuitive to use? Does the car bodywork       definition and digitally crafted and run
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